8th Nakem, Complete List of Abstracts

8th Nakem International Conference
Nov 14-16, 2013, Honolulu, HI, USA

Agcaoili, Aurelio S. University of Hawaii at Manoa. 
“The Call of the Margins, The Crisis of the Center”

The paper argues that in a state marked by multiplicity, there is no place for the fascistic notion of a nation-state built upon the 19th century notion of state (as espoused by Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon) and the search for a proverbial ‘national language’ at the expense of other languages of the multi-nation state.  What the Philippines and other similarly situated countries needs to do is recognize and respect the fundamental rights of peoples to their languages. This act of respect includes the provision of public space for all these languages including the education of peoples in these various ethnolinguistic groups and communities in their own respective languages. Unless the ‘national language’ project in its fascistic and schizophrenic form is stopped and the other Philippine languages normalized, the pursuit of real and honest-to-goodness education in democracy and social justice will never be realized.   

Agngarayngay, Nestor. Mariano Marcos State University.
Agngarayngay, Zenaida. Mariano Marcos State University.
“Adams: A Paradise in the North Western Philippines”

The study is an exposition of the current condition of a pristine place in the hinterlands of Ilocos Norte. This is the municipality of Adams. By using the trope of ‘paradise,’ the exposition looks into what Adams can offer in the context of the border cultures of Ilocandia, and how these border cultures affect our sense of cultural preservation, our understanding of heritage rights, and our resolved to value the indigenous knowledge of sustaining the earth.

Alejandro, Rex-Belli. Mariano Marcos State University
“Panagtagikua ken Panagparangarag: Engaging Philosophy of Liberation as a Point of Departure for a Contextual Panagmennamenna”

The paper argues that by replacing “philosophy” with the Iluko term “panagmennamenna” as Ilokano critical thinking, we can inaugurate a way of doing philosophy in Ilokano.  This paper also introduces “panagtagikua” (owning) as the first objective of “panagmennamenna,” a necessity in putting an end to colonial mindsets of Ilokanos. The paper concludes with the concept of “panagparangarang” or epiphany. This concept revisits the Ilokano condition by investing on the peripheral or subaltern view, and thereby rescuing what it means to be subaltern from its obscurity and hegemonized position. That subaltern position may have within itself the key to forging a road to liberation, and thus, emancipation from all forms of colonization.

Alterado, Danilo. Saint Louis University.
“The Margin as Hermeneutical Key: Awakening the Communicative Potential of Silence in Indigenous Linguistic Worldviews”

The paper explores the communicative potential of silence from non-western cultural spaces to Asian-indigenous worldviews as hermeneutical key to critical and cosmic consciousness. Specifically, it speaks of the Ilokano cosmic Nakem and Laozi’s Dao.  At the core of the Ilokano Nakem is a cosmic impulse that situates this indigenous culture resilience within the dissipating ecological integrity. On the same light, in the Daoist classical text, Laozi speaks of a heavenly Dao that is the origin and the law that sustains everything in the world. In the Ilocano cosmic self and Laozi’s Dao lay a core of cultural belief – an ontology that is deeply founded on the tradition of silence. By seeking out a decisive break from dominant frameworks, this paper argues for the possibility of articulating alternative cultural and linguistic experiences as a political imperative towards democratized world.

Arce, Gilbert. University of Northern Philippines.
“The Role of the Higher Education Institutions in the Pursuit of Multilingual Education”
Rountable Discussion with Dr Alegria Tan Visaya, Dr Raymund Liongson, and Dr Aurelio S. Agcaoili

Asia, Facundo. Mariano Marcos State University.
Asia, Ninfa. Mariano Marcos State University.
Pascual, Carolyn Pilar. Mariano Marcos State University.  
“Archives of Traditional Fishing Gears and Methods of Ilocos Norte, Philippines”

Using indigenous taxonomy, this research looks into the broader context of names and the act of naming fishing implements among fisherfolk in Ilocos Norte in order to surface the deep-seated indigenous knowledge system of the Ilokano people. A revaluation of the fishing methods sheds light on the richness of the Ilokano mind, a mind that reveals a certain understanding of the universe, and the tools needed to relate well to this universe.  

Asia, Ninfa. Mariano Marcos State University.
Lucas, Marilou. Mariano Marcos State University.
Tagay, Angelina. Mariano Marcos State University. 
“Pasarabo in the Broader Understanding of Ilokano Economic Philosophy” 

The research looks into the place of the practice of pasarabo in the economic life of the Ilokano people. By analyzing how this pasarabo has become entrenched in the day-to-day life of the people, and by looking at the role of the returnee, or balikbayan, the paper interprets this practice in light of a variety of classical economic theories of production and productivity.

Aurellano, Rachelle, Waipahu High School
Soria, Julius, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Soria, Trixie, Waipahu High School
“Creating Educational Space through Heritage Language Learning and Teaching: The Case of Ilokano in a Secondary Classroom in Hawaii”

This presentation provides a language education model that assumes the need for grassroots school and community planning efforts in creating pedagogy towards linguistic diversity and addressing the needs of heritage learners. It is a model that offers a space to give or help give voice to young Ilokanos who are the inheritors of the language and culture of Ilokano and Amianan (North) peoples, yet marginalized within the cultural and language groups of the Philippines.

Badua, Steve Ryan, San Francisco State University
“Informing Identity, Identifying Culture: Aural Language Instruction on Intended Messages and Interpreted Meanings”

This paper is a commentary on the effectiveness of the Bachelor of Arts program in Philippine Language and Literature, Ilokano concentration.  This paper focuses on the course, Ilokano Aural Comprehension.  Utilizing the program’s mission statement, benchmarks, and Student Learner Outcomes as the intended messages set by the faculty members of the program, this research explores the students’ receptivity of these messages and their interpreted meanings derived from these messages.  This research also assesses how these students derive meanings through the various activities in which they partake.

Bautista, Clement. OMSS, University of Hawaii at Manoa
“The Issue of Multiculturalism and Diversity and the e-Fil Project” 

The paper explains the rationale behind the e-Fil project. The e-Fil archives documents on Filipino-Americans through the electronic medium for wider access by communities in need of these archives. The sharing of information is seen as a means of expanding knowledge and for a richer understanding of the experiences of Filipinos and Filipino-Americans in the State of Hawaii and the United States.

Cajigal, Aris. Mariano Marcos State University. 
“Scaffolding the Success of the Ilocano Youth – The Ilocos Norte Experience”

The paper presents the overall results of the educational initiatives done by the local government of Ilocos Norte in meeting its Millennium Development Goals.
These initiatives include a comprehensive scholarship program in the elementary, high school, and college levels, extensive school improvement, teacher empowerment, and subsidy for basic school resources and utilities.

Camarao, Mark. Northwestern University
Cadiz, Neyzielle R. University of the Philippines Baguio
“Why not Iloco? A Study on Ilocos Norte High School Newspapers”

The research uncovers the reasons why there is a prevailing non-compliance in the Department of Education order for schools to publish student papers in Ilokano. It also unravels the non-Deped factors that continue to reinforce dominant beliefs and practices in campus journalism in the Ilokano language by looking into the practices of the 27 student-produced campus newspapers in the province of Ilocos Norte.

Garces, Nicki. UHM Hamilton Library.
“The Ilokano Library Collection and the Production of Amianan Knowledge: The Case of the Hamilton Library Ilocaniana Collection”

The research provides an analysis of the assessment of the Ilocaniana Collection of the Hamilton Library of the University of Hawaii. The assessment is framed by the various needs of the Ilokano people of Hawaii, a group that makes up almost 90% of the total Philippine and Philippine-descended people. Another rationale of the assessment is the need of the UH Manoa Ilokano Language and Literature Program for more relevant reference materials.

Clariza, Maria Elena. UH Manoa Hamilton Library.
“KADAGATAN:  An Online Curriculum on Filipino Culture and Marine Ecology”

This paper explores Kadagatan’s impact on Filipino cultural revival and community empowerment.  KADAGATAN embraces a cultural-based science and social studies curriculum.  The term “Kadagatan” means  seas or ocean in the Cebuano language.  It incorporates Filipino culture and core values in teaching tropical marine ecology.  Its aim is to engage students about environmental stewardship and to inspire them to take action in sustaining the wellbeing of their environment. This curriculum focuses on Filipinos and their intimate relationship with the sea, but the concepts covered in three modules are universal.  The website can be access through the following url: http://manoa.hawaii.edu/cseas/teaching/.

Coloma, Anna Maria Socorro. Tarlac State University.
“The Lexical Features of the Emergent Tarlac Variety of Ilokano”

This study identifies variations in the Ilokano language. Ilokano is a dominant language in the area. The study employs William Labov’s language variation theory which postulates that language contact with non-linguistic variables, like age and educational background, contribute to the emergence of a language variety. The study looks into the lexical features of the Ilocano variety that is marked by borrowing from the Tagalog and English languages. The study also notes variations in terms of affixation as well as in orthography.

Dulay, Amadeo. Guild of Ilokano Writers. TMI Filipinas.
Manuel, Marialita. Guild of Ilokano Writers. TMI Filipinas.
Manuel, Ruperto. Guild of Ilokano Writers. TMI Filipinas.
Perez, Filma. Local Government of Nueva Vizcaya.
“Name-Giving Practices Among Ilokanos”

The paper presents the name-giving practices of Ilokanos particularly those from the Ilokanized region of the Cagayan Valley area. Such practices simulate the same age-old practices of the Ilokanos in the Ilocos. In many instances, however, these practices have been tested by the changing social conditions in many Ilokanized areas, and the onslaught of more Americanized and Western ways of assigning names of children.

“Social Change Among Ilongots”
The presentation looks into the assimilation patterns of the Ilongots, otherwise known as headhunters of the hinterlands of the Cagayan Valley area. It looks into the various factors that have contributed to this change in their outlook, practices, beliefs, and ethos. It further explores how social contact with various ethnolinguistic groups has contributed to this marked social change.

Felicitas, Ausbert. University of Northern Philippines.
Jaramilla, Aldrin. University of Northern Philippines.
“Towards a Social Phenomenology of ‘Gasat’”

Using a synthetic and syncretic approach to analyzing ‘gasat,’ the presentation reframes this key concept in the Ilokano schemata of understanding a view of human life. ‘Gasat’ is juxtaposed against the concept of planning, prediction, and willpower. Drawing from the indigenous Ilokano views of the bigger narrative of human life, a narrative that involves even the unexpected, the paper provides a framework for explicating a philosophy of life that goes beyond asking existential question to account responsibility and human freedom. 

Gatdula, Avelina. Northern Luzon Polytechnic State College
“The MTB-MLE in the Field of Instruction: Recounting Observations and Practices in Sta. Maria District, Department of Education”

The papers provides anecdotal evidence of the efficacy of the MTB-MLE, and suggests ways to make the delivery of this new approach to basic education in the Philippines more efficient in keeping with the principles of community ownership and empowerment. The educational pedagogy of the MTB-MLE is tested not so much in the area of conceptualization but in the area of implementation and execution. This is the reason why educational leaders and classroom teachers must always be mindful of the challenges of innovation and change. 

Gatmen, Edna. Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College.
Tuzon, Gloria. Ilocos Sur Polytechnic State College
“Campus Journalism as an Intervention Strategy in Communication Arts”

The research, in several towns in Ilocos, demonstrated how campus journalism could become a vehicle in sharpening the linguistic skills of educatees. The act of writing in two specified languages honed not only the competencies of educatees in writing, but also honed their ability to think and argue for the variety of perspectives that related to their own experiences. Journalism on campus, thus, is one vehicle that could be explored to equip their communication skills of educatees.

Lim, Matthew. University of Hawaii at Manoa. 
"Family Influences and Smoking Among Filipina Girls." 

Among others, the research looks into the various factors that influence Filipina girls to smoke. Using a variety of methodologies and procedures, family influence has been looked into and explains how it becomes one of the main contributory factors to smoking.  

Lino, Marlina. Mariano Marcos State University.
“Bringing into the Center the Ilokano Youth’s Voice through Paka(sarita)an”

The research revisits the salient power of the narrative in the form of the  ‘paka(sarita)an’ henceforth theorized as a methodological approach and theory within the Nakem Conferences discourse. This discourse has been developed through the years, but it owes its seminal energy from earlier critical discourses of scholars on Ilokano language, culture, and ethos. Centered on this act of revisiting is the need to anchor the act of story-telling and story-making on the capacity of the young people to tell their own stories, or to equip them with the skills to do so in the hope that in their telling of their own stories, they could reframe their own narratives for purposes truly their own. 

Liongson, Raymund Ll. University of Hawaii Leeward CC. 
“Language Rights and Human Rights: The View from International Covenants and Social Justice”

The paper revisits the issues of language and culture and reframes these using the lens of human rights. By deploying the principles laid down by various international covenants, the question of language is seen as inalienable, and thus, requiring basic respect. Any act that runs counter to this requisite is deemed violative of this fundamental right, and a state that violates this right is as guilty as any other party, even if the state hides behind claims to ‘common good.’

Lorenzo, Natividad. Mariano Marcos State University. 
Lorenzo, Joanica. Mariano Marcos State University.
“Linguistically Diverse Pupils Learning with the Lingua Franca”

The paper articulates the possible problems to be addressed with frankness when the classroom is not linguistically homogenous, but diverse. Key pedagogical issues have to be solved, and compromises have to be drawn up in order not to jeopardize the education of the educatees. Despite this, questions remain—and these questions are both theoretical and practical: up to what extent one can come up with compromises in the classroom without sacrificing educational substance? The paper tries to revaluate this and offers some possible solutions. 

“Written Communications in Ilokano, No More? …Why Not?”

By using textual analysis, plus other complementary tools, letters are analyzed and the dominant domains in them surfaced in order to account a bigger story, or narrative. What this narrative is all about depends much on so many variables including the language used, and the form and style of communication deployed. This paper presents such relationships in an effort to understand that texts are never neutral, but always deploying meanings and symbols that are sometimes different from what is commonly thought.

Madariaga, Eufe. Mariano Marcos State University. 
“The Language of Politics in Infomercials”

The research looks into the language evident in the infomercials of two towns in Ilocos Norte, and analyzed by looking at the inflections of the words used, frequency of the buzzwords, and the apparent theme, or themes, being suggested or projected in the way the claims have been constructed. Even with a limited sample, we can see here some element of the ‘critical’ in these infomercials, and some element of the ‘drumbeating,’ or the tendency to present the candidates’ accomplishments in the active voice of the verb. 

Piano, Mae Oliva. University of Northern Philippines.
“Pagannurotan, Galad, Panunot, and Kinapateg as Regulative as Part of the Cultural Value System of the Young Ilokanos: The Search for a Regulative Ideal”

The paper presents the intricate connection of, and among, four key concepts related to the core values of the human person as understood by the Ilokanos. Tested against the young people, these values are then redefined, revisited, and reconceptualized through a variety of exchanges among members of a group of college of students (ages 16-19). By drawing on the results of the focused group discussion, and by analyzing the responses of students, the values are drawn out and contextualized in the contemporary life of the young Ilokanos.  

Ranchez, Jesus Basilio.* Mariano Marcos State University.
“The Unpublished Ethnic Dances in Nueva Era, Ilocos Norte: Their Dance Literature”

The study documents the ethnic dances of Nueva Era, Ilocos Norte. The dances are interpreted by taking into account the action, gesture, movement, and steps of the indigenous dancers popularly called Tinguians or Isnegs. Likewise, the particular instruments used suggest ways of accounting the meaning of these dances especially when these are juxtaposed against the community rites and rituals, ceremonies, and healing practices. 

Soriano, Nonadel. Philippine State College of Aeronautics.
“Translating Aeronautical Terms Towards Development of Aviation Lingo in the Vernacular Languages”

The work presents the techniques, approaches, strategies, and principles used in the translation of English aeronautical terms. The movement of the L1 to the L2 (Tagalog and Cebuano) is described and the difficulties of accounting such a difficult movement is brought to the surface in an effort to evolve a productive compromise. That compromise is not tied to the linguistic fact alone, but also to context, and to other considerations of comprehension, clarity, concreteness, and conciseness.

Suarez, Cecilia. Ateneo de Manila University.
Lasam, Ruth. Commission on Higher Education. 
“The Role of Independent Publishing in the Pursuit of Critical Education”

The presentation looks into the criticisms hurled against the implementation of the MTB-MLE from the perspective of (a) preparedness; (b) availability of instructional materials; and (c) appropriateness of such materials from the perspective of production of such materials and the training of teachers who use them. As independent publishers, the paper articulates the same questions raised by other independent publishers. These questions relate to access (a) to public resources in the development of instructional materials and (b) to government subsidy in the production and reproduction of books and reference materials for students and teachers alike.

Washburn-Repollo, Eva Rose. Chaminade University.  
“Cultural Allies Towards a Discursive Turn of  First Languages”
An alternative to developing a discursive turn to the first languages marginalized by hegemonic and political policies in colonized societies is to shape a discursive turn by a visible use of the first language by academics, authorities and role models. The theory that “we want to learn the language spoken by those we love and respect,” necessitates an essential foundation that can be provided by cultural allies who come from positions of power and influence. This paper proposes three different avenues for a discursive turn in the use of the first language. The three structures that can build on already vibrant local usage of the language can be situated in the following media and performance venues: 1) Radio shows inviting local celebrities and talents that use the first language to express views and share vocabulary, 2) Classrooms where teachers model first language use with appreciations for figures of speech with students, 3) Family and office gatherings where exchanges of information are made accessible to local and non-local participants (providing translations of the non-local). All of these venues offer agentive spaces for a reflexive shift to redefine the use of the first language. This is where new ideas and concepts are debated and created to increase vocabulary and love for their own language.

Yumul, Herdy. Mariano Marcos State University.
“English-Only Policy as Palisi: The Case of Saviour’s Christian Academy”

The presentation gives an account of what happened to the three students of Saviour’s Christian Academy from beginning to end. In particular, it narrates of the dynamic involved in forging a collective resistance to such an abuse of power and authority, in staging an organized campaign, and in drumbeating the cause of language and heritage rights. 


The Logic of Language Access in Various Social Services
Colmenares, Serafin Jr., Office of Language Access
Cuaresma, Charlene, SEED, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Manzano, Helena, Department of Health-Hawaii
Lydia Pavon, Domestic Violence Action Center

Access Rights and Commitment to Social Justice
Acido, Jeffrey T. University of Hawaii at Manoa, “Getting There—But Not Yet. Or Why We Have Yet to Word the Struggle for Critical Education”
Lee, Gordon. University of Hawaii at Manoa, “Meaning What We Say in Critical Education”

Student Panel: Our Words, Our World
Alonzo, Erna Marie, “The Exploration of One’s Cultural Identity”
Bugarin, Channara Heart, “Finding the Ilokano-Self in Second Generation
Casinas, Jethro, “Language Transition and Pride of the Ilokano Language”
Domingo, Dean, “Coming Full Circle: From Student in the Program to Teaching in the Program”

Community Language Needs 
Dela Cruz, Castora, “The Language Needs of our Communities in the Health Sector”
Dela Cruz, Rommel, “The Language Needs of our Heritage Communities in the Big Island”
Report of Student Summit, with the Waipahu High School Ilokano GEAR-Up Program, with Alycia Kiyabu, Steve Ryan Badua, Lydia Pavon, Facilitators

Language Access and the Ilokano Community
Custodio, Jennifer, UH Manoa Honors Program, “Serving the Needs of the Students in Higher Education”
Duldulao, Glenda, KKV-CFS, “Ilokano and the Kokua Kalihi Valley Clientele”
Galacgac, Ashley, UH Manoa, “Ilokano Language and the UH Manoa College Student”

*Godspeed, Professor Jessie Ranchez.

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